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ISSN : 2233-4165(Print)
ISSN : 2233-5382(Online)
Journal of Industrial Distribution & Business Vol.11 No.1 pp.7-17

The Effects of Goal Orientation Consciousness versus Unconsciousness on Consumers’ Choice Tendency

Nak-Hwan CHOI*,Fei CHEN**
*Professor, Department of Business Administration, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea. Tel: +82-63-270-2998, Email:

© Copyright: Korean Distribution Science Association (KODISA) This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non- Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
**Corresponding Author, Doctor Candidate, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea. Email:
November 18, 2019 November 22, 2019 November 24, 2019


Purpose: This study aimed at exploring the product choice tendency differences between the consciousness and unconsciousness of goal orientation when product attributes is perceived to be compatible with the goal orientation. Research design, data and methodology: Empirical study used a 2 (goal conscious vs. unconscious) × 3 (hedonic vs. performance vs. reliability attribute) between-subjects design and one control group. To verify hypotheses, χ²-test was conducted to 320 questionnaire data answered by undergraduate students of Jiangxi Normal University in China. Results: First, consumers under unconscious condition showed a higher product choice consistency based on compatibility between hedonic (performance) attribute of the product and their hedonic (performance) promotion goal-orientation than those under the conscious condition. Second, product choice effects of compatibility between reliability attribute of the product and prevention goal orientation were not significantly different between consumers’ consciousness and unconsciousness of their prevention goal orientation. Conclusions: Marketers of ‘under dog’ should try to develop and deliver the product attributes different from the attributes of ‘top dog.’ And the ‘top dog’ marketers should help their customers to avoid the conflicts by developing the environment of inducing their goal orientation unconsciously. Brand marketers should always pay attention to the reliability attributes concerned with the prevention goal orientation.

JEL Classification Code: C83, L81, M31, P46.





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