Journal Search Engine
Search Advanced Search Adode Reader(link)
Download PDF Export Citaion korean bibliography PMC previewer
ISSN : 2233-4165(Print)
ISSN : 2233-5382(Online)
Journal of Industrial Distribution & Business Vol.8 No.2 pp.11-20
DOI : 10.13106/ijidb.2017.vol8.no2.11.

A Study on Effects of the Elderly Heterosexual Attitudes upon Life Satisfaction - For socioeconomic activists -

Myung-Hee Jung*, Young-Jun Jo**
*Professor, Department of Social Welfare, Jungwon University,
Korea. Tel: +82-43-719-4004, E-mail: jmhsubject@hanmail.net

** First Author, Researcher, Department of Social Welfare, Jungwon
University, Korea. E-mail: ymks113@hanmail.net
May 8, 2017 June 1, 2017 June 15, 2017

Abstract

Purpose - The elderly do not want to know what they want and what happiness is, and have no interest in their society. Thus, many studies have been made to investigate real-life situations and to find a solution. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of the elderly's dating upon happiness. This study investigated the effects of the elderly's dating upon life satisfaction.
Research design, data, and methodology - After coding, SPSS Win18.0 was used. The study was investigated as follows. The subjects were 530 elderly of 3 cities in Chungnam who live without children. A total of 512 questionnaire responses were used after we excluded 18 questionnaire because of incomplete responses.
Results - The elderly's date value accounted for 3.22 of 5 in full. In this study, the interviewees (82.3%) said normal or higher level to be satisfied with the date.
Conclusions – With the extended life span of the elderly, their chances to retain or make new partners have increased. Considering this trend, social workers and others in senior centers should give health services to the elderly to consult and give educational programs to be free from prejudice and conservative attitudes. Most of the elderly had desire to date but thought that with prejudice and bias.


JEL Classification:: : H75, I31, J15, R13.

초록


 1. Introduction

Life expectancy is becoming longer in Korea and in other countries. Human life has been extended owing to developed life science. Most of the elderly could live active lives due to early retirement, resignation and better education with improved way of life. The elderly worry about how to spend lots of time in old age and about becoming isolated at the nuclear family system. In the aging society, not only individuals but also the society has suffered from difficulties of the elderly problem. Poverty, health and survival were given attention from the government, while interest in happy life of the elderly such as loneliness and idle life were not. The Korean Elderly's Phone Call said that the elderly's dating and sexual life occupied the largest portion of old age life. Ultimate goal of the elderly's welfare was to improve individual's life quality, so that the elderly shall make effort to live life in accordance with his or her life condition. Better economic life was concentrated on the elderly's basic desire not to solve the elderly's loneliness (Kang & Kim, 2002). Better life could increase healthy elderly so that solving loneliness will have influence upon life quality of the elderly. Loss of spouse at old age worsens physical difficulty. The elderly without a spouse has trouble dealing with loss, loneliness, economic problem, role playing, human problems and psychological pain. Loss of spouse at an old age is greater than that of partner. The elderly without a spouse was interested in dating, which is natural. Precedent studies mentioned that a lot of the elderly were interested in dating. The dating system could help the elderly overcome loneliness to increase life satisfaction and to have affirmative influence upon the elderly's life. Research points to the evidence on the needs of dating for the elderly. But, the Korean society produced negative ideas on elderly's dating based on long time Confucianism values. The elderly's dating was influenced by movies and/or novels to help change the mindset of common citizen's fixed ideas. Most of the studies were based on the elderly's dating describing desire and attitude but almost no study was made on dating experience. The attitude of the elderly's dating follows cultural context. Actual behavior may meet social expectation to have differences between actual behavior and cultural attitude. Thus, a study on the elderly's dating is required. Recent studies of elderly and dating proved to ease the isolation of the elderly, and programs for promotions for elderly dating were made. But, overall research on dating was needed(Kim, 2014).

Thus, this study investigated the elderly's dating and significant difference of variables between the elderly. The elderly's dating variables were numerous. The study was based on gender to give evidence for involvement of spouse loss. The elderly were thought to be weak socially and psychologically at old age, and they look for economic stability, partner for speaking, having hobby life, and good residence. The elderly makes efforts to go on dates and remarry. The elderly do not want to know what they want and what happiness is, and had no interest in the society. Many studies were made to investigate the actual situation and to find different methods for engagement. This study suggested methods and effects of the elderly's dating upon life satisfaction(Kim, 2014).

2. Theoretical Background

2.1. Single elderly's date

The elderly who lost their spouse had difficulties ranging from loss, loneliness, economic problem, role playing and human relations, with psychological pain being felt the most. The elderly's dating could relieve loneliness to elevate life satisfaction and subjective life quality(Chang, 2004). The elderly thought of dating as an affirmative way to accept. Sex and love were thought to belong to young people: so, the elderly were not thought to date with sex and love. In old age, the elderly lost roles to have weak physical body, less social network and not to communicate with young people because of different values and to increase desire to date and to keep good relation with spouse. In a survey on the elderly's date, most of the elderly thought of date in affirmative way and wanted to date. The elderly dating (90.8%) were satisfied with less loneliness and isolation. Single elderly who lost spouse had loneness and isolation and wanted to rely upon the one belonging in the same generation and to accept dates. Single elderly (97%) thought of date in an affirmative way. Some of local governments opened events to promote the elderly's marriage and/or meeting and to garner more attention and active attitudes from the elderly toward dating(Goldman, Korenman, & Wein, 1995).

2.2. Variables of dating

Gender, age and economic status has a great influence in elderlies dating. Elderly men were more active to date than women were, and also the elderly who were comparatively young were more active. Interest in the partner had no significant relation with age. This was because the elderly should consider replacement of a partner. Relations between economic ability and dating had similar tendencies(Kim, 2014). The elderly who had economic ability was interested in the dating scheme more than the one who did not have it Variables of the date includes relations with the children. In the Korean society, family has special value for the individual, and it has been important at old age. Relations between the elderly and adult children had influence upon the elderly's life. Good relations with children could improve the elderly's life quality to be important. The elderly wanted to keep good relations with children that could be a potential social resource. The elderly having weak relations with children thought much of the need to date. This was because good relations with partner could be important at old age. Relationships between elderly parent and children from social support had a big influence upon the elderly's life. The social support between the elderly parent and children made changes to be mutual relation that needed to be clarified(Chang, 2004).

Survey on date and/or remarriage was not abundant and it was difficult to find out the variables on dating because of it. Precedent studies on effects of remarriage of single elderly mostly had similar results. Elderly men were more active at remarrying than women were, and women who were old had less interest in remarriage. Those with economic ability wanted to get married again, and single elderly considered remarriage to overcome economic difficulty as well. Economic ability was essential for remarried men to let the women partners accept their hand in marriage. Economic ability could be an important variable for elderly men to get remarried(Carr, 2004).

Relations with children had a great influence upon single elderly's remarriage. The elderly considered family to be more important than social groups with only friends. The elderly thought of close relations of spouse and children, so that single elderly was influenced by children (Han & Yoon, 2001). The children's attitude toward parent's remarriage had influence upon remarriage and its decision-making. Precedent studies on the elderly's date and remarriage indicated low rate of date and/or remarriage because of prohibition, reluctance and investment, along with children's negative attitude on love in old age(Bae & Park, 2002).

As such, the younger generation agrees that admittanceand support can help the elderly get remarried to let the elderly succeed and to live stable lives. Mutual dependence between parent and children is defined to be the connection of the generation. On a study on desire of remarriage, high connection of structure and function and low contact and affirmative tie made the elderly remarry. The elderly likes to satisfy desire not from spouse but from children. If not, the elderly satisfy desire by dating and/or remarriage so that date and/or remarriage are needed(Chang, 2004).

2.3. Concept of Life Satisfaction

Life satisfaction is having an optimistic attitude and emotional thinking of accomplishment of goals to keep being satisfied with the current situation. The elderly can live successful aging lives by living and accepting given situation to feel satisfactory and to live socially desirable life with personal value for a long time. The elderly's life satisfaction was connected with successful aging by adapting to the reality of aging(Jun & Kim, 2000).

The elderly could think of 'I am still alive.' by dating. The elderly's date had relations with depression and physical ego to date others and to give console and be affectionate and spiritual. Being different from young people, the elderly wants to date considering not only physical purposes but also psychological and emotional purposes as well. The concept of life satisfaction has been used in gerontological study after life satisfaction index(Kim, 2016).

In the past, life satisfaction was used together with either morale or happiness. And, life satisfaction can be measured in various ways to accept complicated aspects and to give various kinds of indexes. For instance, life satisfaction (LISA) index consists of five elements: satisfaction with life, admittance and acceptance of life, accomplishment of goal of life, affirmative image of ego, and optimistic attitude(Kim, 2014).

The elderly may feel pleasure, happiness, affirmative impression, accomplishment of attaining of goal, affirmative image of his or her own, value of existence and optimistic attitude and feeling at daily life, and may be satisfied with lives, current lives, lives in the past and in the future. The elderly's life satisfaction comes from biological, psychological and social conditions to have subjective satisfaction at agreement between expectation and actual state, and to have relation with expectation, compensation, pleasure, accomplishment, satisfaction of desire, affirmative value, welfare, happiness, and morale, etc. Life satisfaction means self accomplishment, self esteem, satisfaction with the reality and attitude toward aging at physical, psychological, social and cultural environment. So, life satisfaction is said to watch life in meaningful way and to have accomplishment and to cognize pleasure at daily life and to feel happy from positive point of view and to maintain optimistic attitude and feeling(Chang, 2004).

2.4. Effects upon Life Satisfaction

The elderly's life satisfaction can be influenced by spouse's death, poverty, neighboring person's disinterest and neglect, loss of desire and frustration. As a result, the elderly may lose physical and mental function greatly to experience inability frequently. In old age, men have weak function of physical body and spirits to lose social role at retirement and to have important value at life cycle. And, researchers investigated existence of religion, education, relation with family, health state, life level, normal date, enjoying of leisure, and social and psychological characteristics(Kim, Kim, & Seo, 2011).

Social cognition on the elderly's date has influenced life satisfaction. Closed social atmosphere had negative influence upon life satisfaction. Most men thought of finishing dates at an old age, and blamed the elderly's interest in date to say 'dementia' at worst case(Kwon & Cho, 2000).

Men did not understand the elderly's date to cognize taboo of the elderly's date in the society and to be an obstacle of healthy date. In the society, men regarded the elderly as the one who was unable to date, and had cultural prejudice of negative thinking of the elderly's date. The elderly could not express date naturally to control their desire(Kim, Kim, & Seo, 2011).

As such, the elderly had difficulty at dating because of social and cultural conditions. Environmental factors can be an obstacle as well. Men lose spouses by separation by death, divorce and others. Loss of spouse creates loss of partner to have great influence upon healthy dating. Living environment that parent lives with children can be an obstacle to decrease dating even if other conditions of date are made. Such a social cognition and prejudice made the elderly have difficulty at dating: the elderly's date was thought not to be active culture(Kim, Ko, & Kwon, 2007).

The elderly's date had influence upon life satisfaction by date habit, health state, mind, and environment and others. Frequency of the elderly's date was influenced by age, physical strength, habit, environment and occupation. The elderly who was healthy and happy was active at dating. This was because of difference of value of dating at old age. The elderly who was healthy to be active from young age and to have more opportunity of date was interested in dating. High life satisfaction had affirmative influence upon the elderly's date. Absence of the partner, negative social cognition and low economic ability had negative influence upon the life satisfaction. Health and economic level and life satisfaction had great influence upon the elderly's date(Kwon & Cho, 2000).

2.5. Precedent Studies on Life Satisfaction

The elderly in latter half of the 60s were satisfied with their lives the most and old age decreased life satisfactiongradually and increased in the latter half of the 70s again, and decreased again after 80 years old.

Women were satisfied with life than men. The elderly having spouse were satisfied with life more than the one having no spouse(Lee, 2010). The one having occupation were satisfied with life more. The one who were illiterate were satisfied with life the least, and the one with college graduate or higher were satisfied with life the most. The elderly living in their own house were satisfied with life, and the one living in the monthly rental house were satisfied with life the least. The elderly having good relation with children, spouse and mother and/or daughter in law were more satisfied with life. The elderly whom all of family members liked were satisfied with life the most, while the one whom all of family members hated were satisfied with life the least. Age, educational background, health state, living life level, occupation in the past and economic level had significant influence upon life satisfaction. Gender and monthly pocket money had no significant influence upon life satisfaction(Lee, 1983). Relation with children and family support had significant influence upon home environment and life satisfaction. The couple's family life and number of children survived had no significant difference. Use of idle time, thought on idle time, religious activity, social activity place and volunteer service had significant influence upon social activity and life satisfaction. Type of the religion and participation in elderly school had no significant influence. The elderly who were young and educated with spouse and occupation were satisfied with date. The one who was satisfied with date had high satisfaction with life(Lee & Jang, 2002).

The elderly's cognition and satisfaction with the date had relation with satisfaction with the date and life. The elderly's desire of date shall be included in satisfaction in old age, and the understanding can improve the elderly's life quality. The date is thought to have influence upon life satisfaction and to give individuals psychological safety and to educate concept and scope of the date. Open attitude toward the date had great influence upon life satisfaction. Precedent studies said relation between cognition and satisfaction of the date and life satisfaction, and high cognition and satisfaction of the date had high life satisfaction(Sohn, 2007).

3. Methodologies

After coding, SPSS Win18.0 was used. The study investigated as follows:

First, frequency analysis and descriptive analysis were done to investigate characteristics of the subject.

Second, Internal consistency of Chronbach's α of reliability analysis was used to investigate reliability, and confirmatory analysis of life satisfaction and date of the elderly was done to verify validity of each factor.

Third, not only T-test but also one way ANOVA was done to examine general characteristics.

Fourth, correlation analysis was done to investigate relation between variables.

Fifth, multiple regression analysis was done to investigate effect of the elderly's date upon life satisfaction.

3.1. Demographic Characteristics of Samples

The subjects were 530 elderly of 3 cities in Chungnamwho lived without children. 512 effective copies of thequestionnaire were used after removing copies havingineffective answer. The investigation was done from January5, 2017 to March 16, 2017. Men and women occupied halfrespectively. 70 to 75 years old interviewees occupied thelargest, followed by 65 to 70 years old (25%), 75 to 80years old (18.0%), older than 80 years old (15.2%), 60 to65 years old (10.9%) and giving no answer (1.2%) in order.High school graduate (27.7%) was the largest, followed by2-years college graduate or higher (23.0%), middle schoolgraduate (21.1%), elementary school graduate (16.8%),illiteracy (9.4%) and no answer (2.0%). No occupation(87.5%) was larger than having occupation (10.9%), and noanswer occupied (1.6%). Common level of heath state(40.6%) was the largest, followed by healthy (28.5%),unhealthy (19.5%), very much healthy (6.6%) and very muchunhealthy (4.7%). Earning living cost by themselves (38.3%)was the largest, followed by family (29.7%), governmentsubsidy (16.4%), miscellaneous (8.6%) and social welfarecenter (social organization) subsidy (4.7%) and no answer(2.3%). Living in their own house (66.0%) was the largest, followed by permanent rental (14.5%), lease of house based on deposit (12.5%), monthly rental (5.1%) and others (2.0%). <Table 1>.

<Table 1> Demographic characteristics

3.2. Descriptive Statistics of the Variables

Likert 5-point scale was used to investigate not onlydating but also life satisfaction. Descriptive statistics wereused. Cognition on the date accounted for 3.13 above meanof 3. Sub areas included desire of the date (3.42) and valueof the date (2.942). Life satisfaction accounted for 3.53above than mean of 3. Sub areas included satisfaction ofthe reality (3.74) and self-accomplishment (3.35).

At normal scope of skewness and kurtosis (skewness <2, kurtosis < 4), normal distribution made appearance tosatisfy regular distribution of cognition on the date as wellas life satisfaction.

3.3. Setting up Hypotheses

<Hypothesis 1> The elderly's date has significantly positive influence upon life satisfaction.

<Hypothesis 1-1> The elderly's date value has significantlypositive influence upon life satisfaction.

<Hypothesis 1-2> The elderly's desire of the date has significantly positive influence upon life satisfaction.

3.4. Variables

In this study, independent variable included the elderly's date, and dependent variable did life satisfaction. Nine questions of demographic characteristics such as gender, age, educational background, religion, occupation, health state, economic level, marital status, type of dwelling, etc were used: The date consisted of frequency, satisfaction, existence, reason of no date, method and date in young days(Park & Bae, 2005).

3.4.1. Independent variables

In this study, validity and reliability were supplemented to test the elderly's cognition on the date. 5 point Likert scale with 11 questions having sub areas of date value and desire of the date was used(Peters & Liefbroer, 1997).

3.4.2. Dependent variables

LSIZ(Life satisfaction Index-Z) was used to investigate the elderly's life satisfaction. Sub scale of life satisfaction included 15 questions of self accomplishment, satisfaction with the reality, and attitude on the aging, and Likert scales was used, for instance, 'not true at all', 'mostly not true', 'common', 'mostly true' and 'very much true'. The test tool had reliability of more than 0.7(Manzoli, Villari, Pirone, & Boccia, 2007).

4. The Findings

4.1. Reliability and Validity

SPSS 18.0 was used to do exploratory factor analysis.The study had validity after consultation with professionals toverify validity of the concepts. Exploratory factor analysiswas done without preliminary knowledge and belief. Factoranalysis was done, and promax was used to simplify factorloading. Cronbach's α was used to get internal consistencyof the questions considering independence of questions.More than 0.5 of internal consistency had reliability. Morethan 0.5 of Cronbach's α and more than 0.9 of individualquestion had reliability.

4.1.1. The Elderly's cognition on the date

An exploratory analysis investigated two factors of the elderly's cognition on the date, that is to say, value of the date and desire of the date <Table 2>. Questions at factor analysis on the date had commonness of more than 0.40 and factor loading of more than 0.60. Cronbach's α of internal consistency was: value of the date of 0.910 and desire of the date of 0.721. Reliability of internal consistency of answer between questions was more than 0.80 to be reliable. The date had internal consistency. The scales of the date and reliability were found to be appropriate.

<Table 2> Factor analysis on cognition on the elderly's date

4.1.2. The elderly's life satisfaction

The elderly's life satisfaction had two factors at exploratory factor analysis, that is to say, self accomplishment and satisfaction with the reality <Table 3>. At factor analysis on life satisfaction, commonness was more than 0.30 and factor loading was more than 0.50. Cronbach's α of internal consistency of answer of questions of each factor was: self accomplishment of 0.763 and satisfaction with the reality of 0.770. Reliability coefficient of internal consistency between the questions of each factor was more than 0.7. Scale on life satisfaction was appropriate so that life satisfaction had internal consistency.

<Table 3> Factor analysis on the elderly's life satisfaction

4.2. Correlation between the Variables

Pearson's correlation analysis was used to investigate correlation of the factors. The analysis gave strength between variables to describe strength between variables. The correlation indicates relation between variables to describe change of variable and strength and direction of the change. The variable had very high correlation of more than ±0.9 and rather high correlation of ±0.4∼ less than 0.7 and low correlation of ±0.2∼ less than ±0.4 and almost no correlation of less than ±0.2.

The study investigated correlation between the variables <Table 4>. The elderly's desire of the date had rather high correlation with date value (r=.643, p<.001) and almost no correlation with self accomplishment(r=.169, p<.01).

<Table 4> Correlation between the variables

The date value had rather high correlation with date desire (r=.514, p<.001) and low correlation with self accomplishment (r=.390, p<.001). The self accomplishment had rather high correlation with satisfaction with the reality (r=.501, p<.001), low correlation with date value (r=.390, p<.001) and almost no correlation with date desire (r=.270, p<.01). Satisfaction with the reality had rather high correlation with self accomplishment (r=.501, p<.001).

4.3. Effects upon Life Satisfaction

The elderly's cognition on the date had influence upon life satisfaction <Table 5>. The elderly's cognition on the date (β =.226) had significant influence upon life satisfaction with explanation power of 14.8%. Durbin-watson value of 1.763 being close to 2 of basic value was thought to have no relation with residuals and not to be close of either 0 or 4. Regression model is thought to be appropriate.

<Table 5> Effect of the elderly's cognition on the date upon life satisfaction

Hierarchical Regression analysis was done to investigate effect of demographic characteristics and date variables upon life satisfaction <Table 6>. Step input was used to exclude multi-collnearity of demographic and sex life variables. Regression analysis was done to include demographic variable of model 1. The model accounted for the elderly's life satisfaction variation (17.8%) to be significant. (p<.01). Age and health state had significant influence upon the elderly's life satisfaction, and gender and educational background had no significant influence. Model 2 added date variable to model 1. The model accounted for the elderly's life satisfaction (18.9%) to be significant (p<.01). The date had no significant influence upon the elderly's life satisfaction.

<Table 6> Factors having influence upon the elderly's life satisfaction

Model 3 added the elderly's cognition on the date to model 2. The model accounted for the elderly's life satisfaction variable (23.8%) to be significant (p<.001). 70 years old or more group had lower life satisfaction than less than 70 years old group had (b=-.197, p<.05), and group saying unhealthy state had lower life satisfaction than the one saying healthy state (b=-.241, p<.05), and date value only had significant influence upon life satisfaction (b=.272, p<.05). Gender, educational background, satisfaction with the date, frequency of the date, solving of date desire, date life in young days, and desire of the date had no significant influence.

4.4. Testing of Hypotheses

<Hypothesis 1> The elderly's cognition on the date has significantly positive influence upon life satisfaction. The hypothesis was adopted.

<Hypothesis 1-1> The elderly's date value has significantly positive influence upon life satisfaction. The hypothesis was adopted.

<Hypothesis 1-2> The elderly's desire of the date has significantly positive influence upon life satisfaction. The hypothesis was not adopted.

4.5. Interpretation

The elderly's date value accounted for 3.22 of 5 in full. In this study, the interviewees (82.3%) said common level or higher to be satisfied with the date. Date satisfaction varied depending upon gender, educational background, occupation and religion. Men were satisfied with date more than women were, and high school graduate or higher was more satisfied with date. But, religion had no relation with the date to differ from finding of the study.

The elderly service provider shall give date program and consulting to the elderly not satisfied with the date and/or not educated to increase the elderly's satisfaction with the date. The elderly's employment has relation with economic ability: Social base shall be made to let the elderly have job and earn money by themselves.

In this study, satisfaction with the date varied depending upon subjective health state and disturbance of healthy life. The elderly's health state had influence upon satisfaction with the date. The health perceived had great influence upon satisfaction with the date to be likely to improve the elderly's life quality and to create aging successfully. Service worker for the elderly shall think of the elderly's health and worker's own health to develop health program effectively.

Satisfaction, frequency, kinds, object, methods and young days date were significantly different depending upon life satisfaction. The elderly who did date more than once a year and thought of effect of the date upon human relation were satisfied with the date.

Life satisfaction was 3.43 on average to be common level and to have no difference at life satisfaction according to common characteristics. Difference of common characteristics was not supported. Further study needs to investigate effect of common characteristics upon life satisfaction.

Life satisfaction varied depending upon disturbance of daily life of the health. Health of the elderly had influence upon life satisfaction and life quality. Aging varied depending upon health level, and the elderly's health state had the closest relation with life satisfaction to have influence upon life satisfaction, and good health produced good life quality. Life satisfaction varied depending upon existence, satisfaction, solving and human relation. Satisfaction with date and subjective health state had influence upon life satisfaction. Health state had influence upon success of aging. Relation between success of aging and the date was unknown because of no precedent studies. Success of aging had relation with life quality, and life satisfaction had relation with date satisfaction. So, satisfaction with the date had influence upon success of aging of the elderly as well as life quality.

5. Summary

5.1. Findings

The subjects were 512 elderly at senior center in urban area and rural area in Chungnam who were more than 60 years old. Questionnaire survey was done to investigate effect of the elderly's cognition on life satisfaction. The finding was:

Ratio of men and women was fifty to fifty. 70 to 75 years old (29.7%) was the largest, and high school graduate (27.7%) was the largest, and unemployed (87.5%) was larger than employed (10.9%), and common health state (40.6%) was the largest, and earning of living cost by oneself (38.3%) was the largest, and living in one's own house (66.0%) was the largest.

Likert 5-point scale was used: Cognition on the date accounted for 3.13 above than mean of 3.0, and desire of the date (3.42) and date value (2.942). Life satisfaction accounted for 3.43, and satisfaction with the reality (3.71) and self accomplishment (3.35).

Date value was higher than desire of the date (r=.514, p<.001) to have low relation with self accomplishment (r=.390, p<.001). Self accomplishment had rather high relation with satisfaction with the reality (r=.501, p<.001) to have low relation with date value (r=.390, p<.001) and to have almost no relation with desire of the date (r=.270, p<.01). Satisfaction with the reality had rather high relation with self accomplishment (r=.501, p<.001).

The elderly's cognition on the date ((β=.226) had significant influence upon life satisfaction (p<.001) to have explanation power of 14.8%. Durbin-watson value of 1.763 being close to reference of 2 had no relation with residuals. Regression model was thought to be appropriate. Hierarchical regression analysis was done to investigate effect of date variable upon life satisfaction. Step input was used to exclude variable having multi-collinearity. Demographic variable of model 1 was included to do regression analysis. The model accounted for the elderly's life satisfaction (17.6%) to be significant (p<.01). Age and health state had significant influence upon the elderly's life satisfaction, and gender and educational background had no significant influence.

Model 2 accounted for the elderly's life satisfaction variable (18.9%) by adding date variable to be significant (p<.01). Age and health state had significant influence upon the elderly's life satisfaction, and gender and educational background and no influence. Date variable had no influence upon the elderly's life satisfaction.

Model 3 with the elderly's cognition on the date accounted for the elderly's life satisfaction (23.8%) to be significant (p<.001). 70 years old or higher interviewees were less satisfied with life than the ones below than 70 years old (b=-.197, p<.05), and the ones who said to be unhealthy were less satisfied with life (b=-.241, p<.05), and date value only was found to have significant influence upon life satisfaction (b=.272, p<.05). Gender, educational background, satisfaction with date, frequency of the date, method of the date, date in young day, and desire of the date were not significant.

5.2. Summary

The study investigated effects of the elderly's date upon life satisfaction. The subjects were the elderly at a senior center in urban cities and rural areas in Chungnam who were 60 years old or more. Questionnaires were used. The study investigated the elderly's desire to date, date value, self accomplishment, satisfaction with reality, and date characteristics.

First, the elderly at old age cognized date less to be satisfied with life, and to be satisfied with life less and to have desire and ability of the date at old age and to differ from social prejudice. The elderly shall have correct knowledge and affirmative attitude on the date that is an important health problem.

Second, the elderly that were in a good health state could date. The elderly suspended and deceased dating in poor health and/or disease. In other studies, the ones suffering from stroke, prostate cancer, diabetes, and lung disease suspended dating. Poor health had the greatest influence upon the elderly's date to continue date under good health state, and to be interested in the disease and to take preventative action and to improve life quality. In other words, the elderly's health state had great influence upon satisfaction with the date. Health, in particular, subjectively cognized health had great influence upon satisfaction with the date to be likely to improve the elderly's life quality and to be aged successfully. The one who works for the elderly's health shall develop health program to let the elderly keep good health and have idea of the health.

Third, date is to be men's rights and to be free from prejudice and to solve the elderly's date problem. The elderly shall discover him or her behind frame of the virtue because of face and/or children. The elderly's physical body had made change owing to developed medicine. Number of consulting center shall increase to give consulting service at problem of the date and to let the elderly visit the center and to produce social environment and public relations. The elderly has extended life to keep partner, and social workers and others at senior center shall give the elderly's health service to consult and to give educational program and to be free from prejudice and conservative attitude. Most of the elderly had desire of the date to think much of date that could produce prejudice and bias. Discussion and/or seminar were used to make correction easily. The elderly related political department, academic world, NGO and welfare organizations shall launch professional and easily understandable campaign.

Figure

Table

Reference

  1. Bae, N. R., & Park, C. S. (2002). The effect of the sexual and heterosexual relationship on the attitude toward remarriage single elderly people. Journal of Family Relations, 7(2), 111-132.
  2. Carr, D. (2004). The desire to date and remarry among older widows and widowers. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 66(4), 1051-1068.
  3. Chang, J. K. (2004). A Study of the Elderly’s Attitudes to Dating in Later Life, Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association, 42(12), 31-54.
  4. Goldman, N., Korenman, S., & Wein, R. (1995). Marital status and health among the elderly. Social Science & Medicine, 40(12), 1717-1730.
  5. Han, G., & Yoon, S. (2001). Living arrangement and psychological well-being of the rural elderly in Korea. Journal of the Korea Gerontological Society, 21(2), 163-178.
  6. Jun, G. Y., & Kim, J. O. (2000). A Study on Self – Efficacy, Perceived Social Support and the Psychological Adjustment in the Bereaved Old People. Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association, 38(1), 155-170.
  7. Kang, H. S., & Kim, T. H. (2002). A Qualitative Study on the Spouseless Elder’s the Sexual Desire and Types of its Solution. Journal of Family Relations, 7(3), 127-151.
  8. Kim, J. J. (2014). A Study on the Effects of Traditional Market Healing Stories for Social Integration: Focused on traditional market in Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do. Journal of Social Contribution. 1(1). 2-5.
  9. Kim, J. J. (2014). A Study on the Role of the Leader in the Organizational Life for the Social Integration and the Changing Consciousness among the Traders: Focused on traditional market in Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Gyeonggi-do. Journal of Social Contribution. 1(2). 6-10.
  10. Kim, J. J. (2016). A Study on the Change of Conscious Thinking Process and Moral Reasoning in Social Welfare. Journal of Social Contribution. 3(1), 2-6.
  11. Kim, S. Y., Kim, S. G., & Seo, H. J. (2011). Depression and resilience in late life widowhood: Testing mediation model of social support. Health and Social Welfare Review, 31(3), 165-196.
  12. Kim, S. Y., Ko, S. G., & Kwon, J. H. (2007). The Moderating Effect of Social Support and Coping on Widowed Elderly. The Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology. 26(3), 573-596.
  13. Kwon, J. D., & Cho, J. Y. (2000). A Study of Factors Influencing the Life Satisfaction of the Aged. Journal of the Korea Gerontological Society, 20(3), 61-76.
  14. Lee, J. U. (2010). Predictors of life satisfaction among older adults in S. Korea: Differences by education level. Journal of the Korea Gerontological Society, 30(3), 709-726.
  15. Lee, Y. J., & Jang, J. K. (2002). The effect of dating on the psychological well-being of elderly Koreans: Focusing on the single elderly. Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association, 40(7), 141-156.
  16. Manzoli, L., Villari, P., Pirone, G. M., & Boccia, A. (2007). Marital status and mortality in the elderly: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Social Science & Medicine, 64(1), 77-94.
  17. Park, C. S., & Bae, N. R. (2005). A study on the remarriage of the elderly people. Journal of Family Relations, 10(2), 115-132.
  18. Peters, A., & Liefbroer, A. C. (1997). Beyond marital status: Partner history and well-being in old age. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59(3), 687-699.
  19. Sohn, E. S. (2007). A Study on Adjustment to Widowhood Among Older Adults - On the Focus of Gender Differences. Korean Journal of Family Social Work, 21, 289-322.